Most newborn deaths are attributable to infectious causes that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The serious bacterial infection is one of the top three leading causes of newborn deaths. Previously, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) only recommendation for the management of infections in neonates (0–28 days old) and young infants (0–59 days old) was a referral for hospital treatment with a seven-day course of a combination of two injectable antibiotics–benzylpenicillin or ampicillin plus gentamicin. However, recent evidence demonstrates that in resource-limited settings many young infants with signs of severe infection do not receive the recommended inpatient treatment because such treatment is not accessible, acceptable or affordable to families.
In 2015, WHO developed new guidelines for the management of possible severe bacterial infection (PSBI) in young infants where referral is not possible. The PSBI Project is an Implementation Research (IR) to demonstrate how to adapt the 2015 WHO PSBI guidelines to the Kenya context.